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1. A researcher wishes to test the hypothesis that low education affects life satisfaction. She gathers a sample of people aged 25 and older.

a. What is the independent variable? ____________________________________________________________

b. What is the dependent variable? _____________________________________________________________

c. What is the unit of analysis? ______________________________________________________________

2. A researcher wishes to test the hypothesis that poverty affects violent crime. He gathers a sample of neighborhoods.

a. What is the independent variable? ____________________________________________________________

b. What is the dependent variable? _____________________________________________________________

c. What is the unit of analysis? ______________________________________________________________

3. A researcher wishes to test the hypothesis that the amount of money a country spends on education, health, and welfare affects the level of drug abuse in that country. She gathers a sample of countries.

a. What is the independent variable? ____________________________________________________________

b. What is the dependent variable? _____________________________________________________________

c. What is the unit of analysis? ______________________________________________________________

4. A researcher wishes to test the hypothesis that the location of a school in either a rural or an urban area affects starting pay for public education teachers. She gathers a sample of schools.

a. What is the independent variable? ____________________________________________________________

b. What is the dependent variable? _____________________________________________________________

c. What is the unit of analysis? ______________________________________________________________

5. Identify the level of measurement for each of the following variables:

a. Persons’ race measured as white, black, Latino, and other ____________________________________________

b. The age at which a woman has her first child _____________________________________________________

c. The sentences received by convicted defendants, measured as jail, prison, probation, fine, and other ___________

d. The number of children in a family ____________________________________________________________

e. How politically active a person is measured as not politically active, somewhat politically active, and very politically active _________________________________________________________________________

6. If a researcher is conducting a survey and wants to ask respondents about their self-reported involvement in shoplifting, there are a few different ways he could phrase this question.

a. What is the level of measurement for Phrasing #1 below? ____________________________________________

How many times have you taken small items from stores without paying for those items?

Please write in: ___________________

b. What is the level of measurement for Phrasing #2 below? __________________________________________

How many times have you taken small items from stores without paying for those items? Please circle one of the

following:

Never 1-2 times 3-4 times 5 or more times

c. What is the level of measurement for Phrasing #3 below? ____________________________________________

Have you ever taken small items from stores without paying for those items? Please circle one of the following.

Yes No

d. Which of the three possible phrasings would be the best one to choose? Why?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

7. The following table contains Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) data on the number of prisoners under sentence of death, by region. Use the table to do the following:

a. Identify the level of measurement of the variable region. ____________________________________________

b. Identify the level of measurement of the variable number of prisoners under sentence of death. _______________

Number of Prisoners Under Sentence of Death at Year-end 2012 (Snell, 2014)

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